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List of Memory and Learning Tools

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Create And Share Mnemonics,Click here Facebook 

 Memorization is the process of committing something to memory.Following are some of principles and techniques to assist improved memorization and learning,

Rote learning, a learning technique which focuses not on understanding but on memorization by means of repetition. For example, if words are to be learned, they may be repeatedly spoken aloud or repeatedly written down. Specialized forms of rote learning have also been used in Vedic chant since as long as three thousand years ago,to preserve the intonation and lexical accuracy of very long texts, some with tens of thousands of verses.

Further Read

A mnemonic, a type of memory aid. Mnemonics are often verbal, such as a very short poem or a special word used to help a person remember something, particularly lists, but they may be visual, kinesthetic or auditory. Mnemonics rely on associations between easy-to-remember constructs which can be related back to the data that is to be remembered. This is based on the principle that the human mind much more easily remembers spatial, personal, surprising, sexual or humorous or otherwise meaningful information than arbitrary sequences.

Further Read

A mnemonic link system, a method of remembering lists, based on creating an association between the elements of that list. For example, if one wished to remember the list (dog, envelope, thirteen, yarn, window), one could create a link system, such as a story about a “dog stuck in an envelope, mailed to an unlucky black cat playing with yarn by the window”. It is then argued that the story would be easier to remember than the list itself. Alternatively one could use visualisation, seeing in one’s mind’s eye an image that includes two elements in the list that are next to each other. One could imagine a dog inside a giant envelope, then visualise an unlucky black cat (or whatever that reminds the user ‘thirteen’) eating a huge envelope. In order to access a certain element of the list, one needs to “traverse” the system (much in the same vein as a linked list), in order to get the element from the system.

Further Read

A peg system, a technique for memorizing lists. It works by pre-memorizing a list of words that are easy to associate with the numbers they represent (1 to 10, 1-100, 1-1000, etc.). Those objects form the “pegs” of the system. Then in the future, to rapidly memorize a list of arbitrary objects, each one is associated with the appropriate peg. Generally, a peglist only has to be memorized one time, and can then be used over and over every time a list of items needs to be memorized. The peglists are generated from words that are easy to associate with the numbers (or letters). Peg lists created from letters of the alphabet or from rhymes are very simple to learn, but are limited in the number of pegs they can produce.

Further Read

The Major system, a mnemonic technique used to aid in memorizing numbers which is also called the phonetic number system or phonetic mnemonic system. It works by converting numbers first into consonant sounds, then into words by adding vowels. The words can then be remembered more easily than the numbers, especially when using other mnemonic rules which call for the words to be visual and emotive.

Further Read

The Method of loci, a technique for memorizing practiced since classical antiquity which is a type of mnemonic link system based on places (loci, otherwise known as locations). It is often used where long lists of items need to be memorized. The technique was taught for many centuries as a part of the curriculum in schools, enabling an orator to easily remember a speech or students to easily remember many things at will.

Further Read

The Art of memory, a group of mnemonic principles and techniques used to organize memory impressions, improve recall, and assist in the combination and ‘invention’ of ideas. This group of principles was usually associated with training in Rhetoric or Logic from the time of Ancient Greece, but variants of the art were employed in other contexts, particularly the religious and the magical. Techniques commonly employed in the art include the association of emotionally striking memory images within visualized locations, the chaining or association of groups of images, the association of images with schematic graphics or notae (“signs, markings, figures” in Latin), and the association of text with images. Any or all of these techniques were often used in combination with the contemplation or study of architecture, books, sculpture and painting, which were seen by practitioners of the art of memory as externalizations of internal memory images and/or organization.

Further Read

Improving :Although maintenance rehearsal (a method of learning through repetition, similar to rote learning) can be useful for memorizing information for a short period of time, studies have shown that elaborative rehearsal(GSStudy is designed to focus more), which is a means of relating new material with old information in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the content, is a more efficient means of improving memory.This can be explained by the levels-of-processing model of memory which states that the more in-depth encoding a person undergoes while learning new material by associating it with memories already known to the person, the more likely they are to remember the information later.

Further Read

Mnemonic systems are techniques or strategies consciously used to improve memory. They help use information already stored in long-term memory to make memorisation an easier task.A mnemonic device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention in the human memory. Mnemonics make use of elaborative encoding, retrieval cues, and imagery as specific tools to encode any given information in a way that allows for efficient storage and retrieval. Mnemonics aid original information in becoming associated with something more meaningful—which, in turn, allows the brain to have better retention of the information.

Types of Mnemonics

1. Music mnemonics
Songs and jingles can be used as a mnemonic. A common example is how children remember the alphabet by singing the ABC’s.
2. Name mnemonics
The first letter of each word is combined into a new word. For example: VIBGYOR (or ROY G BIV) for the colours of the rainbow or HOMES for the Great Lakes.
3. Expression or word mnemonics
The first letter of each word is combined to form a phrase or sentence — e.g. “Richard of York gave battle in vain” for the colours of the rainbow.
4. Model mnemonics
A model is used to help recall information.
5. Ode mnemonics
The information is placed into a poem or doggerel, — e.g. ‘Note socer, gener, liberi, and Liber god of revelry, like puer these retain the ‘e (most Latin nouns of the second declension ending in -er drop the -e in all of the oblique cases except the vocative, these are the exceptions).
6. Note organization mnemonics
The method of note organization can be used as a memorization technique.
7. Image mnemonics
The information is constructed into a picture — e.g. the German weak declension can be remembered as five ‘-e’s’, looking rather like the state of Oklahoma in America, in a sea of ‘-en’s’.
8. Connection mnemonics
New knowledge is connected to knowledge already known.
9. Spelling mnemonics
An example is “i before e except after c or when sounding like a in neighbor and weigh.

(The above article is quality checked,copied ,remixed from wikipedia.org )

Following are some of the Tools you can use to generate Mnemonics 

Spaced Repetition Practice Tools (GSSTUDY Android app soon coming )

Mathew Effect In Learning (accumulative advantage)

The Idea of Matthew effect was introduced in education by Keith Stanovich. Stanovich used this idea to describe how early acquiring of reading skills leads to later successes in reading as the learner grows, while failing to learn to read before the third or fourth year of schooling may be indicative of lifelong problems in learning new skills. This may be occurring because children who fall behind in reading would read less, increasing the overall gap between them and their peers. Later, when students need to read in order to learn new information, their reading difficulty will create difficulty in most other subjects. In this way they fall further and further behind in school, and ultimately dropping out at a much higher rate than their peers.

Citation 
Stanovich, K. E. (2009). Matthew Effects in Reading: Some Consequences of Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Literacy. Journal of Education, 189(1–2), 23–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022057409189001-204
 
Merton, Robert K. Robert K. Merton: Sociology of Science and Sociology as Science. Edited by Craig Calhoun, Columbia University Press, 2010. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7312/calh15112.

 

Free Websites For Civil Service Exam Preparation Online

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UPSC Official >Facebook Link

UPSC Notification >Facebook Link

Some Exclusively UPSC focused Websites

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Free Education Platforms and YouTube

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MOOC Providers

Find UPSC syllabus covering topics from the list of courses .Expose yourself to some international high quality content .
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Popular Sources 

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What about Spaced Repetition ?

Spaced Repetition is a scientific method of learning that involves time intervals between subsequent review of learned items to exploit the psychological effect of spacing effect.

A meta-analysis by Donovan and Radosevich, in 1999 suggested that those who learn information by spaced repetition will outperform 67% of those who learn by mass presentation given the same number of practice episodes.

Spaced Repetition Practice Tools .

 

Citation

Donovan, John & Radosevich, David. (1999). A Meta-Analytic Review of the Distribution of Practice Effect: Now You See It, Now You Don’t. Journal of Applied Psychology. 84. 795-805. 10.1037/0021-9010.84.5.795.

 

Learning How To Learn Free Course

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Learning to learn effectively is the most important skill and the primary education for outstanding performance.Go To Coursera.org and attend this course offered by University of California( San Diego) Professor Barbara Oakley.

Complete this assignment  as a priority number 1 before you start your preparation. Actively participate in the Coursera discussion forums also.

 

CLICK HERE TO VISIT COURSE PAGE AND ENROLL ,ITS 100% FREE 

Most important skill in this era of accelerated evolution ?

[Written by Kiran Johny] Originally featured in nextbigwhat.com.

A shift from linear Darwinian evolution to the era of exponential evolution requires the skill of Learning to learn fast anything, any conditions and challenges. The traditional idea of one skill and one specialization domain for the rest of your life is obsolete already.

“The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. ” Alvin Toffler.

Alvin Toffler wrote the book “Powershift” 27 years ago as he looked at the industrial economy moving to the knowledge economy. Many years passed and the major philosophical question remains similar but more intense. What happens when economic value is created out of knowledge of intangible assets like programming skill and creativity. What will happen when everything from Self-Driving Car to 3D printing requires only one type of professionals “The Knowledge Worker”.The more scary thought is what will happen when exponential technologies like AI, Biotech, and Nanotech merge and cross-pollinate. What will happen when Quantum computers become mature enough to calculate seemingly impossible amounts of data in less than a snap. What will happen when all these exponential technologies work along with block-chain methods to disrupt institutional agents like governments, banks, and money.

These questions are obvious but the answers are impossible to be precise and bound to be incorrect because exponential technology evolution is a domain of complexity.

Complex events like technology evolution, entrepreneurship, social movements etc are far more difficult to understand and manage. It’s harder to predict what will happen because complex systems interact in unexpected ways and with unknown variables. It’s harder to make sense of things because the degree of complexity may lie beyond the limits of our cognitive ability and analytical tools. In complex systems like technology and business, it is harder to place bets because the past behavior may not predict its future behavior. This often makes the outlier more significant than the average.A small change in any initial condition variable can result in a huge difference in end result.That is why every moment in history happens only once.There will be no more Google, Facebook and AirBnB created twice in history.The creation and success of these companies were outlier events accompanied by accumulated advantage of massive wealth and connection.

Implications On Human Learning

Many experts estimate that up to 40% of what students learning today will be obsolete a decade from now when they will be working in jobs that have yet to be created. Indeed the top 10 most in-demand jobs today didn’t even exist 10 years ago. To say that we live in a linear world with Darwinian natural evolution understates the speed of both the pace and the scope of ongoing change. Natural and social boundaries are simultaneously disappearing fast and the global human resources become more skilled and mobile. This means the competition in the top 10% jobs will become more and more global.
The other corollary is that everything that can be automated will be automated and everything that can be Digitized will be Digitized.This is even true in the Trump and Brexit era of Nationalism.Historian Yuval Noah Harari says “ I don’t know about the present, but looking to the future, it’s not the Mexicans or Chinese who will take the jobs from the people in Pennsylvania, it’s the robots and algorithms. So unless you plan to build a big wall on the border of California — the wall on the border with Mexico is going to be very ineffective”.

On the other hand, our schools and universities are hopelessly inadequate in preparing us for the impending disruption in every walks of our life. Our education system is built on the factory economics idea where one spends a few years in a process of progressing in a linear fashion, and at the end of it, granted with a degree of bachelor’s or master’s or a PhD, you are somehow magically prepared for the rest of your working life.This traditional model worked well in a previous era, which was characterized by predictable skill demands and process jobs. But in the new era of digital acceleration jobs will soon be outdated or automated faster than they are created, This is why the very definition of ” learning” and “school system “needs a paradigm shift.

Learning to learn fast is the only De-risking intervention possible

Our ability to adapt fast to challenges and pro-actively make changes in our life is what will make of a crucial differentiator. According to Darwin “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent.It is the one that is the most adaptable to change.”Adapting and changing comes with the risk of leaving something behind and losing something.How should we approach this era of a never-ending possibility of risk?An insightful thought can be found in the advice of Peter Thiel. In a recent interview, Y Combinator asked Mark Zuckerberg about the best advice Peter Thiel ever gave him, which was;

“In a world that’s changing so quickly, the biggest risk you can take is not taking any risk.”

The essence is that the world is aggressively marching forward. When it comes to adapting to change, a delay is increasingly expensive as you quickly lose your place. Every change is a risk and every learning requires some degree of choice to take this risk or that risk. This psychology of competing opportunity costs requires increased skill of risk tolerance.Risk taking is learning to deal with uncertainty which is an essential part of the new world order.

Skills of Dynamic Stability: A Google X Perspective

Learning agility is the primary skill to unlocking your change proficiency and succeeding in a complex, unpredictable and constantly evolving environment. The choice is simple: act or be acted upon. Be proactive or reactive. Since change is the only constant you can truly rely upon, learning to navigate and adapt to it is essential for us to survive, succeed and thrive.

Astro Teller CEO of Google X shares one of the most intriguing idea about learning.He says

“I am actually not a huge believer that you have to pick what it is you are going to be an expert at NOW (and) study that really hard and go out and shop that expertise throughout the rest of your life .The bad news is that the stuff you are learning now is going to be fairly irrelevant in 10 years.The good news is that the skill of learning things quickly ,(and) figuring out how to understand the first principles and be able to reconstruct your knowledge even after you forget 90 % of it later ,Those skills are critical for the rest of your life “

Watch the original video from Stanford Technology Ventures Program